Dance is highly demanding and requires exceptional flexibility, balance, power, agility, coordination, and endurance. To properly execute movements, a dancer assumes positions that place excess stress on bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, thus leading to high injury rates. The injury incidence is reported to be as high as 5.6 per 1,000 dancing hours for pre-professional dancers, and 4.44 per 1,000 hours in a company of professional dancers (Allen et al, 2012). In comparison, the injury rate for elite gymnasts is 2.86 per 1,000 hours and 0.69 for novice gymnasts (Saluan et al, 2015). Gymnasts have a higher percentage of traumatic injuries, whereas 75% of the injuries sustained in dance are related to overuse. Overuse injuries are caused by repetitive movements/stress which can lead to micro-injury of the tissue that is being loaded. If the injury rate exceeds the rate of healing/repair, the tissue can become damaged (Sephton, 1998).
The majority of dancers are fatigued at the time an injury occurs. This is because fatigue compromises muscle performance, coordination, joint stability, and neural feedback (Liederbach 2012). Overuse injuries tend to be more severe in nature and result in more dance time lost. Lower leg injuries are reported to be between 66 and 78% of the injuries, whereas foot/ankle injury comprises 14 to 57% of all injuries among dancers. Injuries sustained during class and performances are more severe than injuries that occur during rehearsals (Allen 2012).
Common risk factors for injury include:
1.Allen, N. Nevill, A. Ballet Injuries: Injury Incidence and Severity over 1 Year. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. Vol 42, number 9, September 2012. 781-790.
2.Saluan, Paul et al. “Injury Types and Incidence Rates in Precollegiate Female Gymnasts: A 21-Year Experience at a Single Training Facility.” Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine 3.4 (2015): 2325967115577596. PMC. Web. 4 Feb. 2018.
3.Sephton, Sharlene. "Foot Injuries in Dancers." ADVANCE for Physical Therapy and Rehab Medicine (1998) Web. 4 Feb. 2018.
4.Liederbach, Marijeanne. "Epidemiology of Injuries in Dance: Biopsychosocial Considerations." Principles of Dance Medicine: Clinical Management of the Dancer Patient. July 12, 2012, New York University Langone Medical Center. 2012. Print.
5. Russell, J. A. (2013). Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives. Open access journal of sports medicine, 4, 199.
6. Allen, N., Ribbans, W. J., Nevill, A. M., & Wyon, M. A. (2014). Musculoskeletal injuries in dance: a systematic review. Int J Phys Med Rehabil, 3(252), 2
Do you need some unique ideas for a breakfast smoothie or a portable meal? Check out these recipes from Nasira. The instructions are simple for each: add all ingredients to a blender, puree until smooth, and enjoy! Consider using an insulated thermos to keep your smoothie cold until lunch or snack time.
Oat Avocado Smoothie
½ cup plain non-fat Greek yogurt
1/2 cup unsweetened almond milk
¼ cup raw rolled oats
1 frozen ripe banana
¼ cup mashed avocado
½ ripe pear
1 Tbsp ground flaxseed
1 scoop soy or whey protein powder
Cocoa Almond Smoothie
1 very ripe frozen banana
3 Tbsp almond butter
¾ cup white Northern beans (drained)
1 Tbsp chia seeds or flaxseeds
2 Tbsp unsweetened cocoa powder
1 cup unsweetened almond milk
Green Vanilla Mint Smoothie
¼ cup unsweetened almond milk
¼ cup fresh baby spinach
Fresh mint leaves or ½ tsp mint extract
¼ cup vanilla or plain whey protein or egg white protein powder
2 Tbsp unsalted pistachio nuts
1 Tbsp Stevia
1 tsp vanilla extract
Strawberry Banana Smoothie
1 cup unsweetened almond milk
1 cup strawberries, quartered
1 banana, frozen
1/2 cup plain greek yogurt
1 Tbsp ground flaxseed meal
2 scoops soy or whey vanilla protein powder
Tropical Chia Fruit Smoothie
1 cup unsweetened almond milk
¼ cup unsweetened shredded coconut
½ cup mango chunks, fresh or frozen
½ cup pineapple chunks, fresh or frozen
2 scoops soy or whey protein powder
Good nutrition is essential to help dancers achieve ideal body composition and ensure adequate energy to support growth and fuel training. Training may last for the majority of the day and run over several meal times, so it's important to take a variety of snacks and small meals along to the studio or rehearsal venue. If there are small breaks between classes, light snacks like cereal bars, smoothies, fruit, and low-fat yogurt are ideal. If there are larger breaks during the day, sandwiches, wraps, frittatas, rice, couscous, potato, or pasta salad might be more suitable. Protein should be included in each snack to repair and maintain muscle. Protein synthesis (i.e., muscle building) occurs by consuming as little as 15 to 25 grams of complete protein (e.g., egg, dairy or soy) after exercise. There are numerous foods that offer quality, complete protein - you can learn more about them in our upcoming post about protein quality! Including healthy fats, such as the kind found in nuts and seeds, in your snacks will promote concentration and enable quick thinking during rehearsals.
Here is an example of a one-day meal plan for a day consisting of two dance classes (1.5 hours each) and an evening rehearsal (1.5 hours):
This is a basic example. Food options are customizable according to your schedule, food preferences, and tolerances. An individual meal plan requires preparation, so don’t hesitate to bulk prep on the weekends to allow for easy meal packing during your busy week of class and rehearsal.
Check back soon for more recipe ideas from Nasira!
Our goal is to empower the dance community by providing helpful tips and resources to optimize health, improve function, and ultimately extend one’s career. Pursuing a successful dance profession should not inflict chronic pain, perpetual stress, or diet confusion. The competition and politics of the dance world can be discouraging, but with realistic and intelligent strategies to address your challenges, you can thrive as a dancer! Health en Pointe provides evidence-based information on injury prevention, nutrition, and wellness for current and former dancers.
We are a qualified team of health professionals that understand the life of a dancer. Here is some information about the founders of Health en Pointe, Moira the Physical Therapist, and Nasira, the Registered Dietitian:
Moira is a former competitive gymnast and dancer. She trained at various summer intensives such as Kaatsbaan Ballet and Houston Ballet. She graduated Summa Cum Laude from the University of Arizona with a B.F.A in dance. She danced and performed pieces in jazz, modern, and ballet. In 2015, Moira graduated from California State University Long Beach with a Doctorate in Physical Therapy. She has also completed training in vestibular rehabilitation from the prestigious Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Currently, she is working at Progressive Physical Therapy in Costa Mesa. She is also serving as the PT resource for the ABT Gillespe School in Orange County. Her extensive dance background in various movement styles engendered a unique understanding of complex movement patterns and translated into a knowledgeable approach to treating movement dysfunction. In addition, her first-hand experience with dance affords her unique understanding on preventing and treating the various disorders associated with dancers of all ages. In her free time, she teaches Pilates and lectures on prevention and management of dance related injuries. She is working on completing her Pilates apparatus accreditation with Body Arts And Science International (BASI) and is actively incorporating her learned skills in daily treatment sessions.
Nasira is a registered dietitian, fitness expert, and professor of nutrition. She was drawn to public health and nutrition as a result of her diverse background in science, fine arts, and fitness. Nasira is currently an adjunct faculty member at Chapman University, a private practice registered dietitian, and post-doctoral researcher. She also guest-teaches ballet throughout Orange County. She has been a classical ballet dancer for over 18 years and trained with Pacific Northwest Ballet in Seattle, WA and the University of Arizona School of Dance and attended summer intensives at the National Ballet of Canada and American Ballet Theater NY. The BFA program at the U of A prepared her for a career as a professional dancer, choreographer, and dance instructor, however, her passion for science led her to pursue an alternative path. Upon graduating Summa Cumma Laude from the University of Arizona, Nasira continued her studies in pursuit of a career as a nutrition professional and obtained a Masters in Public Health from UCLA and a Doctorate in Nutritional Sciences from Loma Linda University. Nasira has been a certified personal trainer since 2008, and is a certified yoga instructor. Her experience in the fitness industry has deepened her knowledge of biomechanics and kinesiology, which has improved her dance technique and understanding of injury prevention.
We hope you find Health en Pointe to be an integral resource and become a better dancer because of it. We encourage your active participation in this blog and welcome comments, questions, and sharing. Please visit us often!